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区域景观体系作为城市化的媒介 10.13.2015
区域景观体系作为城市化的媒介
查尔斯河口城市波士顿的景观演变与城市发展
Regional Landscape System as Medium of Urbanization
the Landscape Evolution and Urban Development of Boston as Charles River Estuary City
郑  曦 蒋雨婷
ZHENG Xi JIANG Yu-ting
摘要:城市是构建于自然系统之上的,而多数天然的环境并不完全适于人类栖居。通过持久的人工干预自然,形成不断演变和适应的地域景观风貌,构建了区域景观体系,城市存在于这个体系上并不断调适与生长。以美国东北部的查尔斯河口城市波士顿为例,从风景园林的视角,全面分析了河口城市化的过程,主要集中在区域景观体系、城市形态、工业化以及公园系统等方面,包括:河口自然环境和早期聚落、建立公园雏形波士顿公地;利用潮汐水能促进工业化发展、填地与治污推动城市扩张;构建城市尺度和大都市区域尺度两个著名的公园系统。探讨了区域景观体系作为媒介引导城市生长与城市发展的过程,为当代城市化过程中风景园林作为城市战略提供启示。
关键词:风景园林;查尔斯河口;干预;区域景观体系;媒介;波士顿
基金项目:中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金:“风景园林规划设计学术研究团队建设”(编号TD2011-35)资助
Abstract: The city is built and developed within the natural system, while most natural environment is not entirely suitable for human living. By everlasting human intervention with the nature, the territorial landscape gradually evolves the regional landscape system. City exists in the system and attempts to accommodate and grow up. A case study will be given on  the Charles River Estuary city of Boston which located in the northeastern U.S. From the perspective of landscape architecture, this paper will do a comprehensive analysis on the process of estuary urbanism, mainly in the context of regional landscape system, urban morphology, industrialization and green park system. More specifically, it includes the estuary natural environment condition, the early settlements, the establishment of Boston Commons as park prototype, the promotion of industrial development by utilization of tidal hydrology, urban sprawl driven by landfill and pollution control, and construction of two famous urban park systems. This study explored regional landscape system evolution as medium to guide urban development, which provides enlightenment for the landscape architecture as strategies in the process of contemporary urbanization.
Key words: Landscape Architecture, Charles River Estuary, Intervention, Regional Landscape System, Medium, Boston
Fund items: Supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities: "Team Development of Landscape Architecture Planning and Design Academic Research "(TD2011-35)
1引言:生长在河口上的城市
当代城市正面临着环境恶化,地域性缺失、高度同质化等问题,常规的城市化手段似乎未显示出抵抗这些问题的高效性,反而出现建成环境的均质化和城市文化平淡与趋同现象。在很大程度上,景观正脱颖而出,成为重塑城市空间环境、促进定义城市形态并塑造其独特性的重要媒介而上升为城市战略。所以从风景园林的视角,以区域景观体系的演变为出发点,审视和解读城市空间形态的发展,对于拓展风景园林的视野与手段以应对我国当代的快速城市化和生态文明建设具有借鉴意义。
本文重点关注河口地区的区域景观体系与河口城市的发展。位于河口的城市大多土地肥沃,拥有优良的海港,贸易发达,有着独特的自然地理环境,历经人工持久干预与梳理的河口自然系统,在世界范围内孕育了经济文化发达的河口城市(群)。选择美国东北部名城波士顿(Boston)的城市发展与所在的查尔斯河口(Charles River Estuary)景观演变为例进行分析。
(未完待续)
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