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基于生态能级的县域绿地生态网络构建初探 06.10.2015
基于生态能级的县域绿地生态网络构建初探
An Initial Survey on the Construction of Ecological Energy Level Based County Green Space and Eco-Network 
刘滨谊  卫丽亚
Liu Bin-yi   Wei Li-ya
摘  要:以县域绿地的用地界定与特征为研究背景,分析网络结构实现生态能量流动、辐射和交换的机理。提出“生态能级”概念、理论,据此分析县域绿地与县域其他城乡发展用地的时空特征及演变。研究生态能级的空间效应分析评价,将生态空间构成要素分为正能级、零能级、负能级三阶和七级分级,提出基于不同生态能级的空间效应特征进行绿地生态网络要素的空间连接、渗透和隔离的原理方法。构建三网:以连通为核心的生境廊道网络、以辐射为核心的风景绿道网络、以承载为核心的生态安全网络,并使三网与县域其他发展用地叠加耦合。力求在有限的土地空间上,以合理的绿地生态网络结构形式和多元共赢的发展方式,实现最大限度的县域绿地保护与建设。
关键词:县域绿地系统规划;绿地生态网络构建;县域城乡发展用地;生态能级;网络构建
基金项目:“十一五”国家科技支撑计划重点项目“城镇绿地生态构建和管控关键技术研究与示范”(编号2008BAJ10B00);城镇绿地空间结构与生态功能优化关键技术研究(2008BAJ10B02)
Abstract: With the county land use definition and characteristics of green space as the research background, the network structure mechanism to realize ecological energy flow, radiation and exchange was analyzed. The concept and the theory of "Ecological Energy Level" were put forward, and the characteristics and evolution of space and time of county green space and the other county land use for urban and rural development were analyzed. Effect analysis and evaluation research of ecological level of space was carried out. The constructive elements of ecological green space were divided into three levels of positive energy, zero energy and negative energy level and seven ranking. The method and principle for spatial connection, infiltration and isolation of green space ecological network factors were proposed based on spatial effect features of different ecological levels. Three networks were constructed: the habitat corridor network with connection as the core, the scenic greenway network with radiation as the core and the safety protection network with loading as the core. All these three networks would be overlaid and coupled with the other county land use. It is our purpose that within the limited land space to achieve maximum protection and construction of green space on county level with a proper green space network structure and the development way of multiple win-win.
Key words: County Green Space System Planning; Green Ecological Network Construction; County Land Use for Urban and Rural Development; Ecological Energy Level; Network Construction
Fund Item: The Key Research Program of National Science and Technology Supporting Plan under the 11th Five-Year Plan-Research and Demonstration on Key Techniques for Construction and Management of Urban and Rural Green Space Eco-system(2008BAJ10B00); Key Technique Research on the Optimization of Spatial Structure and Ecology Function for Urban Green Space(2008BAJ10B02)
中国的县域绿地是城镇绿地重要组成部分和内涵延伸。“县域”也是中国基础的行政管辖单元(不含市辖区,包括县级市在内的县级行政的管辖范围,总面积约占国土面积的80%,总人口约占全国的70%),孕育着大量生态、景观和文化资源,在中国的生态版图上更起着无法替代的作用。十八届三中全会明确提出健全城乡发展一体化体制机制,城乡间的壁垒被打破,城乡一体化的区域发展已经成为当今和未来发展的主流。中国新型城镇化64个试点中直接列出的县有25个(不含上层级试点所含县域),约占总数的40%。目前业界的关注热点正在不约而同地聚焦到县域,从中国城镇绿化长远的宏观战略看,县域绿地是中国经济和社会发展的生态底线和国家生态储备地,县域绿地作为县域城镇化发展的重要条件,已成为中国新型城镇化发展成败的关键因素之一。
1 县域绿地的界定、特征及其生态作用特点
1.1 县域绿地界定
县域绿地对应县域土地管理层面分为县城绿地、县城规划区范围绿地和县域范围绿地3个范围,是指县域内以自然植被、人工植被或无植被为主要存在的绿化用地,能够有效地发挥生境保育、景观游憩、防护修复的绿地功能的绿化生态用地。包括各类自然保护区、风景名胜区、郊野公园、城市绿地、旅游景区、风景林地、动物栖息地、生态涵养林、防护林、商品林、湿地、滩涂、草地以及需要进行生态修复的弃置地、水土流失及荒漠化地区等。本研究未将农田耕地纳入县域绿地,一方面因为农作过程造成大量的生态危害(如退耕还林等政策),对环境的贡献值较小;另一方面考虑到基本农田已划定明确的面积指标和保护范围进行统一控制,从绿地生态网络构建的角度更适合充当县域绿地的基质本底。
县域绿地在县域城乡用地划分上主要包括扣除耕地(农业生产用地)之外的其他各类非建设用地和城乡建设用地中的绿地两部分。根据《城市用地分类与规划建设用地标准(GB 50137 – 2011)》,县域绿地包括非建设用地E1,E9 和E2中扣除农用地部分,以及城乡建设用地(H11)中的G类;根据《土地利用现状分类标准(GB/T 21010-2007)》,县域绿地包括02园地,03林地,04草地,11 水域及水利设施用地,12 其它土地等。(未完待续)
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